For the last few years I’ve taken part in a philosophical debate on how to better handle concurrency and throughput. To achieve higher throughput in the application layer requires certain expertise, and probably even per application. Scaling your infrastructure is a know-how as well. The answer between one or the other, Programmatic or Infrastructure, is as always - somewhere in between. The Middle Way. It depends.
Even if I know something now, it doesn’t mean anything about the future, as requirements change through time. The uncertainty can be so high that is completely unpredictable, or predictable and you’ve got it wrong. You could have gotten it right for year one, but year two was so good for business that the assumptions you made no longer hold. As an architect that is something to consider.